Research quality studies on lakes, reservoirs and watersheds


Dr. Gertrud K. Nürnberg
Dr. Bruce D. LaZerte

3421 Hwy 117, RR.1
Baysville, Ontario
P0B 1A0 Canada

Phone: (705) 767-3718
email: gkn”at”

1-page profile for Freshwater Research (pdf)

Evaluation & Modelling

·        Lakes, reservoirs, and river catchments

·        Nutrients (phosphorus), eutrophication, trophic state

·        Oxygen and temperature

·        Phytoplankton including cyanobacterial blooms, fish

·        Application of mass balance, statistical and other models

·        Prediction of pre- and post-development and remediation scenarios


·        Limnological survey and experimental design, monitoring plans

Consulting and Feasibility Studies for Lake Restoration

·        Lake or Reservoir bottom water withdrawal

·        Addition of phosphorus adsorbing chemicals, e.g., Phoslock (lanthanum modified clay)

·        Lake circulation and aeration

·        Catchment remediation

·        Stormwater detention ponds

·        Extensive case study file

Education and Outreach

·        Presentations

·        Workshops: Internal P load (pdf) at NALMS Conferences

·        Reports

·        Peer-reviewed and other publications

·        Hands-on activities

·        External adviser and official reviewer for PhD and Master of Science students

Clients & Collaborations

·        Federal, Provincial and Municipal governments

·        Public interest and lake association groups

·        Private sector, engineering firms

Location of Projects

·        Canada: Ontario, Quebec, Manitoba, Alberta, British Columbia

·        USA: CT, CO, ID, MI, MN, WI, SD

·        Europe: Germany, Finland, Sweden


Dr. Gertrud Nürnberg is an environmental scientist with over 30 years of experience studying and modeling the geochemistry of lakes and reservoirs (Ph.D. 1984, McGill University, Montreal, Canada). She develops models to predict average nutrient concentrations in lakes and reservoirs, including those that are polluted or anoxic (oxygen-free at the bottom). Past experience includes the determination of watershed (external) and sediment (internal) loadings of nutrients and other pollutants, the establishment of lake nutrient objectives and TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads) for municipal and state agencies, and the estimation of anoxia in more eutrophic waters. She is a past Director of the Eastern Canada Region of NALMS (North American Lake Management Society).

C.V. and Publications by Dr. Nürnberg

Publication List (pdf), e.g., Trophic State Definition paper
Web release by publisher: Lake Simcoe Internal load: press release

Dr. Bruce LaZerte is an environmental scientist with statistical training (Ph.D. 1978, M.A. Statistics 1975, University of Michigan, USA) and has many years of experience studying and modeling the hydro-geochemistry of upland catchments, wetlands and lakes. His research has included the impact of "acid rain" on forested catchments and wetlands, aluminum and acidified soil geochemistry, aqueous toxicology and toxic trace metal geochemistry. He has also developed daily, time-dynamic, mass balance models for nutrients in lakes and reservoirs and studied stable carbon isotope ratios in lake plankton and sediments.

C.V. and Publications by Dr. LaZerte


Drs. Nürnberg and LaZerte have studied and modelled hardwater lakes and reservoirs of Ontario, Quebec, Alberta, Manitoba, British Columbia, Connecticut, Michigan, Idaho, South Dakota, Colorado, Germany, and Sweden as well as softwater lakes, wetlands and upland soils on the Canadian Shield in north-central Ontario and in Finland.

Past projects of Freshwater Research

They have prepared numerous reports for engineering firms, public interest groups, lake associations and municipal, provincial and federal levels of government. In addition, they have authored book chapters and over eighty scientific articles in respected journals such as Environmental Science and Technology, Journal of Environmental Engineering (ASCE), Journal of Great Lakes Research, Inland Waters, Limnology and Oceanography, Lake and Reservoir Management, Hydrobiologia, Archive of Hydrobiology, Water Research, Water Resources Research, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, the Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, the Canadian Journal of Forest Research, the Canadian Journal of Soil Science, and Revue des Sciences de l'Eau.

Reports by Freshwater Research

Our links to websites of lake research and professional societies:

·        North American Lake Management Society

·        American Society of Limnology and Oceanography

·        International Association of Theoretical Limnology

·        The Society of Canadian Limnologists (SCL)

·        Canadian Society of Environmental Biologists

·        The International Organization for Great Lakes Research

·        ASCE- American Society of Civil Engineers

·        US-EPA, Environmental Protection Agency

·        U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

·        Canadian Institute for Science and Technology

·        Ontario Nature or Federation of Ontario Naturalists

·        ECO-Ethics International Union

·        Prof. J. Cairns: "Goals and Conditions for a Sustainable World"

·        ResearchGate